What are anal glands?
Anal glands are two little sacs of fluid that sit just inside your dog’s rectum. Their job is to produce his signature scent that he leaves on his poo as a marker for other dogs. When your chi stops to sniff another dog’s poo they are picking up the scent that identifies who the dog is. This is also one of the reasons that dogs will sniff each other’s bums when they first meet.
If you are lucky, your chihuahua will never have an issue with them and this process will pass you by. His anal sacs will empty by themselves when you chihuahua does his business and happily, you will be none the wiser.
If you are unlucky, anal glands can cause recurring problems, mainly centred around not emptying and possibly getting infected.
This is very uncomfortable for your chihuahua and often a visit to the vet is required. Treatment for full anal glands is a manual expression, and if infected, antibiotics.
How to treat inflamed anal glands
Our latest vet (long story) suggests that giving oral antibiotics can be ineffective as they find it difficult to reach the area of infection. Persistently infected glands need to be irrigated then filled directly with an antibiotic. This is done under sedation rather than full anaesthetic. This is something we might have to consider for Mika as he has recurring issues with his glands.
Another option is to remove the sacs completely. Many experts warn against this unless there is absolutely no option. Removing the anal glands can cause their own health issues and cause permanent damage to the anal sphincter.
Another job of the anal glands is to help the body cleanse itself of toxins (like flea treatments, vaccines and worming tablets). If the anal glands are not there, then the body can find it harder to remove these toxins.
Why do they get anal gland problems?
There can be a variety of reasons why your chihuahua’s anal glands get inflamed and infected.
- Allergies; If your chi has allergies to grass, pollen and other substances, sitting and getting them on his bum are going to cause itching. As your chi chews and scratches at the area he can cause trauma to the anal glands.
- Existing GI or colon inflammation is likely to cause inflammation in the glands.
- Medications, vaccines, flea and worm treatments. These toxins can cause inflammation and an imbalance. The usual liquid in the glands becomes thicker and can’t be discharged through the ducts.
- The glands may be slightly in the wrong place and aren’t stimulated when a stool passes.
- A chihuahua that does not get enough fibre in his food will probably pass soft stools. This will mean they don’t have enough bulk to stimulate the glands as they pass through. This can happen after a bout of diarrhoea or illness.
Should we DIY?
Once-upon-a-time it was usual for the groomer to automatically express your dog’s anal glands as part of the service they provided. The advice now is don’t express a healthy dog’s glands. Constant manual manipulation causes trauma to the gland and poor muscle tone. This can cause the very problem you are hoping to avoid. Once you have started to express manually you find yourself having to do it more often and the issue becomes cyclic.
Some owners also like to express their dog’s glands at home and have taught themselves how to do it. I can understand why at £20-30 a visit to the vet. But, caution is required here. If pressed too hard the gland can rupture. This would be very painful for your chihuahua, might require surgery and antibiotics.
You can try and stimulate the glands externally by massaging your dog’s back end just under his rectum. For me, this is as far as I would go before I asked the vet to look. If you don’t know what you’re doing you might not realise the gland is infected or you could introduce infection.
Signs your chihuahua is having anal gland problems.
- Scooting across the floor on his bum
- Rubbing himself against the furniture or you
- Sitting down while on walks
- Chewing his back end or legs
- Paw licking and displaying signs he is in pain. Read how to tell if my dog is in pain.
- Sitting uncomfortably
- Hot painful lumps just under his tail
- Squatting to produce phantom stools
Prevention is always better than cure
Trying to avoid anal gland issues is better and a lot cheaper than trying to cure it. Make sure your chihuahua has a healthy species appropriate diet that produces firm stools. Raw is good for this. People who feed their dog’s raw food will delight in their dog’s small firm stools.
Make sure your chihuahua has regular exercise, chihuahuas may be small but they still need to get out for a good walk every day.
Avoid over vaccination and other toxins like chemical worming and flea treatments. There are plenty of natural alternatives. Yearly vaccination boosters are unnecessary and Leptospirosis is just a nonsense vaccine that can make your chihuahua ill.
Keep your dog’s teeth clean. Excessive bacteria in the mouth can cause all sorts of additional health issues. This is so important for your chihuahuas long term health we have written a book about it.
Try to avoid manual manipulation of the anal glands unless it is necessary.